新品动态 | 云南大叶白茶的小百科(写在首款白茶上市之际)

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【摘要】:
近期,蒲门茶业将出品500年树龄的云南大叶古树白茶。

讲云南白茶,首先我们需要了解什么是白茶。

To talk about Yunnan white tea, we need to know what is white tea first.

 

 

我国的茶叶分类,以著名茶学专家陈椽先生提出的“六大茶类分类”、程启坤先生提出的“茶叶综合分类法”及刘勤晋先生提出的“三位一体茶叶分类法”较为出名

Tea classification in China is well known for the "Six Classifications of Tea" proposed by Mr. Chen Hao, a famous expert in tea science, the "Comprehensive Classification of Tea" proposed by Mr. Cheng Qikun and the "Trinity Classification of Tea" proposed by Mr. Liu Qinjin. 

 

其中“六大茶类分类法”从茶叶品质系统性和制法的系统性概括了六大基本茶类; “茶叶综合分类法”则在此基础上增加了再加工茶类;而“三位一体茶叶分类法”则是以用途、制法和品质三方面来定位。其中陈椽先生提出的“六大茶类分类”已得到国内外茶业界广泛认可,并在茶叶科学研究、生产及贸易中广泛使用。

The "Six Classifications of Tea" summarizes six basic tea categories from the systematic aspects of tea quality and tea production; the "Comprehensive Classification of Tea" adds processed tea categories on this basis; and the "Trinity Classification of Tea" is positioned in three aspects: use, preparation and quality. The "Six Classifications of Tea" proposed by Mr. Chen Hao has been widely recognized by the tea industry at home and abroad, and widely used in tea scientific research, production and trade.

 

 

“六大茶类分类”从茶叶品质系统性和制法系统性把中国传统茶类分为绿茶、红茶、青茶(乌龙茶)、白茶、黄茶、黑茶六大类。

"Six Classifications of Tea" systematically classifies Chinese traditional tea into six categories: green tea, black tea, green tea (Oolong tea), white tea, yellow tea and black tea from the perspective of tea quality system and legal system. 

 

2014年,由全国茶叶标准化技术委员会牵头组织编写的中华人民共和国国家标准《茶叶分类》(GB/T 30766-2014)正式实施,该标准以生产工艺、产品特性、茶树品种、鲜叶原料和生产地域为原则进行分类,其中第2章“术语及定义”中明确定义“白茶”为“以特定茶树品种的鲜叶为原料,以萎凋、干燥等生产工艺制成的产品”。其第4章“类别”中,把“白茶”分为“芽型、芽叶型、多叶型”3类。

In 2014, the National Standard of Tea Classification (GB/T 30766-2014) of the People's Republic of China, compiled by the National Tea Standardization Technical Committee, was formally implemented. The standard is classified according to the principles of production technology, product characteristics, tea varieties, fresh leaf raw materials and production areas. In Chapter 2, "Terminology and Definition" clearly defines "white tea" as "a specific tea tree". Varieties of fresh leaves as raw materials, withering, drying and other production processes to produce products. In Chapter 4, "Categories", white tea is divided into three categories: bud type, bud leaf type and multi-leaf type. 

 

那么,从此标准中我们已基本了解白茶的工艺,便是萎凋、干燥两道工序,成品分为叶型、芽叶型、多叶型3类。那么,传统意义上的白茶有哪些呢?

Then, from this standard, we have a basic understanding of the white tea process, namely withering, drying two processes, the finished product is divided into leaf, bud and leaf, multi-leaf three types. So, what are the traditional white tea?

 

 

早在2008年,由全国茶叶标准化技术委员会牵头组织编写的中华人民共和国国家标准《白茶》(GB/T 22291-2008)的实施,基本定性了白茶的分类及产地。

As early as 2008, the implementation of the national standard "White Tea" (GB/T 22291-2008), which was compiled by the National Tea Standardization Technical Committee, basically defined the classification and origin of white tea. 

 

虽然该标准的第1章“范围”中说明了“本标准适用于以茶树的芽、叶、嫩茎为原料,经萎凋、干燥、拣剔等特定工艺制成的白茶”,但其第3章“术语和定义”及第4章“产品和实物标准样”明确规定了茶树的品种及原料。细看该两章内容,不难发现本标准只适用于以“大白茶”、“水仙茶树品种”以及概念模糊的“群体种茶树”(具体是什么群体种未明确定义)。

Although Chapter 1 "Scope" of the standard states that "this standard applies to white tea made from buds, leaves and tender stems of tea plants by withering, drying, picking and other special processes", Chapter 3 "Terminology and Definition" and Chapter 4 "Standard Samples of Products and Objects" clearly specify the varieties and raw materials of tea plants. Looking closely at the contents of these two chapters, it is not difficult to find that this standard is only applicable to "big white tea", "narcissus tea varieties" and "group planting tea trees" with vague concepts (which group species is not clearly defined). 

 

那么问题来了,除“大白茶”、“水仙茶树品种”以及模棱两可的“群体种”之外的茶树鲜叶,按“萎凋——干燥”方法制成的成品,能否定义为白茶呢?显然,作为国家标准,这个标准是有漏洞的,虽然在2017年该标准发布了第二版,但其片面的品种原料仍然未有更新及完善,这远远已经不能满足市场的发展及需要。

Then the question arises: can the fresh leaves of tea trees other than "big white tea", "narcissus tea varieties" and ambiguous "population species" be defined as "white tea" by the method of "withering-drying"? Obviously, as a national standard, this standard has loopholes. Although the second edition of the standard was issued in 2017, its one-sided varieties and raw materials are still not updated and improved, which is far from meeting the development and needs of the market.

 

野生白茶

 

多年以来,由于黑茶类存储价值的热点及普洱茶“越陈越香”的卖点持续走高,茶业界中微乎其微的白茶也渐渐跟风走上轨道,层出不穷的各种白茶闯入大众的视野,但迫于国家标准的片面性,各地各企业只好自制企标,重新定义自家的白茶。

Over the years, due to the hotspot of black tea storage value and the increasing selling point of Pu'er Tea, the slight white tea in the tea industry has gradually followed the trend, and various kinds of white tea have emerged into the public's vision. However, due to the one-sidedness of national standards, enterprises all over the world have to make their own enterprise standards and redefine their own white tea.

 

 

云南的白茶,也是这时候兴起的,翻看国标与地标中,云南白茶还没有被定义,查阅云南卫生监督信息网可知,最早以标准形式定义云南白茶的,是云南白药天颐茶品有限公司(以下简称“天颐茶品”)。天颐茶品在2014329日首先备案了《月光白茶》(Q/TYC 0006 S-2014)企业标准。该标准首次定义了以云南大叶种鲜叶为原料制做的白茶。此后,云南白茶渐渐走入市场,逐渐规范化、标准化。

Yunnan white tea is also rising at this time. Looking at national standards and landmarks, Yunnan white tea has not yet been defined. Looking at Yunnan Health Supervision Information Network, we can see that Yunnan white tea was first defined in standard form by Yunnan Baiyao Tianyi Tea Products Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Tianyi Tea Products"). Tianyi Tea first filed the enterprise standard of "Moonlight White Tea" (Q/TYC 0006S-2014) on March 29, 2014. The standard defines for the first time the white tea made from fresh leaves of Yunnan large-leaved seeds. Since then, Yunnan white tea has gradually entered the market, gradually standardized and standardized.

 

 

那么,什么是月光白呢?这个传了很多年的故事,由于没有找到源头,只能以网上较多的解析文章结合作者学茶制茶多年的知识积累及经验来做出推测和解释了。

So what is moonlight white? This story, which has been passed down for many years, can only be inferred and explained by more analysis articles on the Internet combined with the author's accumulated knowledge and experience of tea-making for many years.

 

 

月光白又名月光美人,主要原料是景谷大白茶,其核心原产地在云南普洱景谷地区。其工艺制法为:鲜叶采摘,及时摊薄,摆放在阴凉的架子或簸箕上,避免阳光直射,让鲜叶逐步脱水干燥、自然萎凋阴干。

Moonlight White is also known as Moonlight Beauty. Its main raw material is Jinggu Dabai Tea. Its core origin is in the Jinggu area of Puer, Yunnan Province. The process is as follows: picking fresh leaves, diluting them in time, putting them on a cool shelf or dustpan, avoiding direct sunshine, and gradually dehydrating and drying fresh leaves, natural withering and shading. 

 

月光白的名字由来有两种说法:一是因为成茶叶面呈黑色,叶背呈白色,黑白相间,叶芽显毫像一轮弯弯的月亮,一芽二叶整体看起来像黑夜中的月亮,故得名“月光白”;其另一种说法是月光白茶鲜叶的采摘需在夜间进行,夜里就着明亮的月光,采摘嫩芽为原料,并且从采收到加工完成,均不能见阳光,仅在月光下慢慢晾干,所以命名为月光白。当然对于第二种说法,多有杜撰和神秘美化的嫌疑,可信度不高,但第一种说法却是名副其实的。

The name of moonlight white comes from two ways: first, because the tea leaves are black, the back of the leaves is white, black and white, the buds are like a curved moon, one bud and two leaves as a whole look like the moon in the night, so it is named "moonlight white"; the other is that the picking of bright leaves of moonlight white tea needs to be carried out at night, with bright moonlight at night, picking tender buds as raw materials. And from harvesting to processing, can not see the sun, only slowly dry in the moonlight, so named moonlight white. Of course, for the second statement, there are many suspicions of fabrication and mysterious beautification, the credibility is not high, but the first statement is true.

 

 

随着月光白渐渐崭露头角,云南各地涌现出各种各样的白茶,虽然也有假借月光白之名胡乱宣传的,但也不乏出现一些另类的优质云南大叶白茶。由于云南各茶产地品种差异较大,加之茶园地貌地形环境复杂多变,不同产地的茶树品种、品质特性差异较大,按照同样的工艺制出来的白茶口感依然千差万别。

With the emergence of moonlight white, various kinds of white tea have emerged in Yunnan. Although there are also some random propaganda under the name of moonlight white, there are also some other high-quality Yunnan Daye white tea. Because of the great differences of tea varieties in Yunnan, and the complex and changeable topography and environment of tea gardens, the tea varieties and quality characteristics in different producing areas are quite different. The taste of white tea produced by the same process is still very different.

 

但另一方面,由于云南得天独厚的适茶地理环境、优越的生态条件及丰富的古茶树资源,使得云南大叶白茶相比其他白茶类也形成一种别具一格的特色。

 On the other hand, Yunnan Daye White Tea has a unique characteristic compared with other white tea because of its unique geographical environment, superior ecological conditions and abundant ancient tea resources.

 

 

云南大叶种水浸出物高,内含物质丰富,而其茶多酚与氨基酸等有效成分含量也不低,且其芽叶肥大,茸毛多,加之优越的生态条件、较少的人为干预修剪及管理、较高的平均树龄及活跃的生长状态,使之作为茶叶原料便有一种天然的优势。

The water extract of Yunnan large-leaved seeds is high and rich in substances, and the contents of tea polyphenols and amino acids are not low, and their buds and leaves are hypertrophic and hairy, together with superior ecological conditions, less human intervention in pruning and management, higher average tree age and active growth status, which make them a natural advantage as tea raw materials. 

 

而对于不杀青、不揉捻、微发酵的白茶来说,鲜叶的内含成分的多少与比例协调性很大部分决定了成品的品饮、转化及存储价值。对于今天茶业界流行的白茶存储与陈化的风气来讲,云南大叶白茶显然比其他白茶更具有存储价值。当然,就像普洱生茶一样,最终决定一款云南大叶白茶的存储价值的,仍然与其原料、产地、工艺密不可分。

For the white tea which does not kill green, do not roll, micro-fermentation, the content and proportion of the fresh leaves are in harmony with each other, which largely determines the value of drink, transformation and storage of the finished product. For the popular storage and aging of white tea in tea industry today, Yunnan Daye white tea obviously has more storage value than other white tea. Of course, just like Pu'er raw tea, the storage value of a Yunnan big leaf white tea is still closely related to its raw materials, origin and technology. 

 

优质的云南大叶白茶原料,需要优越生态的生长环境,茶树鲜叶本身内含物质丰富,比例协调,具独特天然香气的更优,若需要考虑后期的存储与转化,更宜选择高龄茶树或古树类,其口感的协调性与丰富性更佳。此说法可类比云南晒青毛茶及普洱生茶的品质特点,不难理解。

High-quality raw materials of Yunnan Daye White Tea need superior ecological growth environment. The fresh leaves of tea trees are rich in substances, coordinated in proportion, and have better unique natural aroma. If the storage and transformation of later period are considered, it is better to choose old tea trees or ancient trees, which have better coordination and richness in taste. This statement can be compared with Yunnan sun-dried green tea and Pu'er raw tea quality characteristics, it is not difficult to understand.

 

 

最后我们谈一谈“功效”问题,按《中华人民共和国食品安全法》规定,任何食品不能宣传具有保健功效,而保健品不能宣传有治疗疾病的功效。显然,对于非药品、非保健品而只是作为食品的茶叶类来说,谈“功效”是不妥的。研究表明茶叶中确实含有具有治疗疾病和用以预防疾病的有效功能成分,但从医学的角度来讲,“脱离了剂量谈功效都是耍流氓”,所以我们只能说喝茶有益身体健康。

Finally, we will talk about the "efficacy" issue. According to the provisions of the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China, no food can be propagated to have health effects, and health products can not be propagated to have the efficacy of treating diseases. Obviously, it is inappropriate to talk about "efficacy" for tea products which are not medicines, non-health products but only food. Studies have shown that tea does contain effective ingredients to treat and prevent diseases, but from a medical point of view, "without the dose to talk about efficacy are hooligans", so we can only say that drinking tea is good for health. 

 

白茶是轻微发酵茶,它包含了较多的茶多酚,丰富的维生素,因而它对于抗氧化,促进血液循环、保护血管;提神,缓解疲劳;预防蛀牙、保护牙齿;促进人体糖代谢,调节血糖水平;抗菌消炎等方面都有比较好的作用,还可以清肝明目、降压降脂、醒酒。从中医的角度讲,白茶性凉,具有清热降火的作用,但对于肾虚、胃寒者来说,不易空腹饮太多,或可以煮饮。

White tea is a slightly fermented tea, which contains more tea polyphenols and rich vitamins, so it has good effects on antioxidant, promoting blood circulation, protecting blood vessels; refreshing, alleviating fatigue; preventing tooth decay, protecting teeth; promoting human sugar metabolism, regulating blood sugar level; anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory, etc. It can also clear the liver, clear the eyes, reduce blood pressure, reduce fat and wake up alcohol. From the point of view of traditional Chinese medicine, white tea has the function of clearing away heat and reducing fire, but for those with kidney deficiency and stomach cold, it is not easy to drink too much on an empty stomach, or can be boiled and drinked.

 

近期,蒲门茶业将出品500年树龄的云南大叶古树白茶,敬请期待。

In the near future, Pumen tea industry will produce the white tea product with 500-year-old Yunnan large-leaf ancient tree tea. Please look forward to it.